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Heat exchanger

A heat exchanger is a piece of equipment built for efficient heat transfer from one medium to another. P&P Industrietechnik offers heat exchangers by our own production.
As one of the last companies in Europe, we design, calculate, construct and produce your specific heat exchangers. Depending on the media, we use different types of heat-exchangers in different carrier medias (water, steam, thermal-oil, thermal-salt).

P&P Industrietechnik is also specialized in heat transfer systems. In many cases the usage of heat is at different places. Depending on the temperature, we calculate your specific heat-transfer system with different transfer medias.
For lower temperatures we use water or steam systems. They get less economic with growing temperatures because of growing pressure. We often use thermal salt at temperatures higher than 155°C. The biggest benefit is their low pressure at high temperatures up to 650°C. Another Medium is thermal-oil.

Efficiency of heat exchangers: The efficiency of heat exchangers is depending on proportions between thermic energy cold side to discharged energy hot side. (First law of thermodynamics). Insulation can decrease heat losses. Depending on the temperature difference between Medias and outside temperature heat losses are bigger ore smaller.

P&P heat exchangers are able to heat the cold medium pretty effective and to cool the hot medium pretty effective too. The physical limit is defined by the second law of thermodynamics. Heat cannot spontaneously flow from a colder location to a hotter location.

Simple example:

Imagine two water streams in co-current flow. One of them with temperature 50 °C (warm water) the other one with 10 °C (cold water). Both of them are equal in flow. For example 1 kg/s. if you are mixing both streams, you get 2 kg/s water with 30 °C. Increase of temperature is about 20 K.

This is the theoretical maximum. In reality it´s less because of limited areas for changing media temperatures and limited possibilities of insulation. Different are counter current flow systems:

With this system it´s theoretical possible to cool the warm water down to the cold water temperature and simultaneously to heat the cold water to warm water temperature. The theoretical maximum increase of temperature is about 40K.